Stuckenbruck, The Myth of the Rebellious Angels: Many of us living in cultures shaped in fundamental ways by the Bible will have some passing familiarity with the primordial stories of Genesis, from the creation of the world and humans to the great flood during the lifetime of Noah. Most would be less familiar with a gripping tale about the origins and persistence of evil linked to the biblical accounts of Enoch and Noah, apparently first put down in writing some time during the Second Temple period. The story is that of a rebellious, fallen band of angels and the gigantic sons they produced with human women, a basic form of which has endured through many centuries.
Doxiadis was already established as an expert on housing and urban development and was well known amongst American and international urban planning and development circles.
The Greek architect and planner had been a government official between andas the coordinator of post-war reconstruction as well as the administrator of the Marshall Plan aid to Greece — a career that was abruptly interrupted inprompting him to found his private firm of consulting engineers Doxiadis Associates in He conceived of the human settlement as a living organism having its own laws and defined by five key elements: Nature, Anthropos ManSociety, Shells and Networks — a theory that he first formulated in Doxiadis a and further articulated and analysed in his book Ekistics: By conceptualizing the study of human settlements as a science, Doxiadis aimed to respond to the totality of human needs across cultural, geographic and socioeconomic differences in a holistic manner Philippidis For Doxiadis the natural and man-made areas were interdependent and needed to be conceptualized as a whole, in order to develop a balanced coexistence between the two Pyla Through ekistics, Doxiadis promoted a scientific interdisciplinary model of urbanism that united development with environmental protection Pyla By combining an active practice with a series of research programs, Doxiadis aimed to blend theory and pragmatism Khan Mahsud For Doxiadis, research was a plan of action.
The founding of the Athens Center of Ekistics ACE in signalled this strategy, whereby the four research programs informed the formulation of the interdisciplinary model of ekistical urbanism. As Myrto Antonopoulou-Bogdanou has aptly pointed out, these four research projects covered the entire spectrum of time: Research as a Plan of Action: The program produced both published monographs e.
In addition, two Comparison between ancient antiquity and declaration of Ekistics — the journal of ACE — were dedicated to cities of the past, presenting ongoing research of the project as well as papers of the international conferences organised in conjunction with the project.
It is clear that by pursuing the Ancient Greek Cities AGC research project, Doxiadis was not merely interested in understanding a distant past. As Panayotis Tournikiotisand Doxiadis believed that the study of the ancient Greek city could provide modern architects and urban planners the means to deal with these problems.
In his book on the science of human settlements i.
By studying ancient settlements, Doxiadis wanted to identify the parameters by which city and nature coexisted harmoniously in the past, so as to reintroduce such rules in the modern metropolis Pyla With the AGC project, Doxiadis showcased the ways in which interdisciplinary research may offer new tools and techniques to fight the problems of modernity.
In this sense, the AGC project is paradigmatic of the project of modernity and its effort to legitimise its actions through the study and implementation of scientifically proven tools Tsiambaos The research project on Ancient Greek Cities began as a thought inat a time when Doxiadis was conducting research on his books Ekistics: In his thesis, Doxiadis sought to define the principles that govern the composition of monumental ancient Greek architectural complexes from the 7th to the 2nd century BCE.
He suggested that their architectural composition was conceived on the basis of a polar coordinate system, the centre of which was the entry point of an architectural ensemble — where for the first time the entire space of the architectural ensemble was perceived by an observer Figs.
In fact, his model of analysis points to his personal understanding and perception of ancient Greek space, rather than a proven theory Tsiambaos With its modernist approach to ancient planning principles, which perceived monumental ancient Greek urban complexes through the panoptic vision of a modern viewer Tsiambaos Figure 3 Plan analysis of the terrace of the temple of Athena 4th c.
BCE in Pergamon in the doctoral thesis of Doxiadis a: The entry point of the architectural ensemble point A — where for the first time the entire space is perceived by an observer — is the centre of the polar coordinate system. Doxiadis Archives, File Figure 4 Perspectival view of the temple of Athena 4th c.
The great accomplishment of his doctoral dissertation was that, with his theory, Doxiadis proved that an ingenuous hypothesis would accomplish more than any scientifically proven truth — something that can be demonstrated by the numerous theoretical enquiries into ancient Greek urban and landscape design it has inspired see, most recently, Iliopoulou and ; and discussion in Tsiambaos It is therefore not surprising that after over 20 years Doxiadis revisited his doctoral research study.
The time was ripe to test but also, as we will see, supersede his hypothesis in his overarching plan to employ research as a tool for the formulation of an interdisciplinary model of ekistical urbanism. The Ancient Greek City and the Symposia of Delos The birth of the idea of dedicating a distinct project on the ancient Greek city sheds light on the ways in which Doxiadis conceptualized the study of the past and integrated it in his projects.
The trigger for this seems to have been the 6th International Congress of the European Cultural Foundation, which was going to be held in Athens in May Doxiadis intended to make a presentation in this congress that would prove the ways in which the ancient city can provide information for the city of the present.
Doxiadis Archives, Photographs, File a. Doxiadis Archives, Photographs, File c. During the same period, he organised the first Symposion of Delos, 17 which took place in There were eleven more Symposia, which were held from to and undoubtedly contributed to the development of the research project on the Ancient Greek City.Late Antiquity in the Eastern Roman Empire is very similar to the West: migrations/invasions, conflicts between Christians and Pagans being replaced by internal conflicts within Christianity (e.g.
the Arian, Monophysite and Iconoclast controversies), Christianity branching out beyond the Mediterranean basin with more strength than . Comparison Between Ancient Antiquity and Declaration of the U.S. Declaration of Independence present many ideas which can be traced back to the time of classical antiquity.
Many of the concepts within the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence can be linked to ideas that were present in ancient Greece and Rome. The U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence present many ideas which can be traced back to the time of classical antiquity.
Many of the concepts within the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence can be linked to ideas that were present in ancient Greece and Rome. History of human rights Jump to While Enlightenment philosophers suggest a secular social contract between the rulers and the ruled, ancient traditions derived similar conclusions from notions of divine law, and, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Some Differences in Life between the Ancient and Modern Worlds Those who study antiquity would do well to consider life in earlier times compared to life in the West in the 21st century.
The technological differences are staggering but other differences, including . Some Differences in Life between the Ancient and Modern Worlds Those who study antiquity would do well to consider life in earlier times compared to life in the West in the 21st century.
The technological differences are staggering but other differences, including population and world view, are equally daunting.