This quantitative and qualitative research was the largest single survey of adolescent drug use in Britain, although its findings are similar in many respects to the numerous, smaller local and national cross-sectional studies that began in the mids and have continued since. The North West Longitudinal Study was able to attract considerable resources and given its longitudinal validity provides a considerable payoff in terms of methodological robustness when compared to the many smaller, somewhat isolated studies. Nevertheless the specific results overall are not that much different from the many other studies, in that we know that recreational drug use has increased in popularity and acceptance among young people, and to some extent the points of detail about which drug is fashionable in what time and space seem increasingly less interesting although these are important details for locally based service providers and health educators.
History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.
Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief. He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge.
Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge. He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking.
Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it.
According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments. During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking  defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems other than 'improving' one's own thinking.
Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.
It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal and, to a lesser extent, formal logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.
This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon". Walters Re-thinking Reason,p.
Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking".The problem is that decades later social science has not done much more to critically expose a policy system (so called `harm reduction') that seeks to take health promotion seriously by enlightening the `harmful' choices that young people make, and which rather denies the wider social and psychological traumas that young people face in a modern .
Critically Discuss What Howard Parker Et Al () Mean by the Normalisation of Recreational Drug Use.
How Convinced Are You by This Explanation of the Contemporary Drug Situation? Critically discuss what Howard Parker et al () mean by the normalisation of recreational drug use. In this essay I will further discuss the theory of normalisation by Parker et al.
Parker, Williams and Aldridge () use the normalisation theory to measure ‘sensible’ recreational drug use. These drugs include cannabis, amphetamines, LSD and ecstasy, sensible drug use does not include using a combination of these drugs at one time or.
Howard Parker University of Manchester The normalization of ‘sensible’ recreational drug use Parker,Williams and Aldridge (Parker et al., ) connected to small dealers.
Because most recreational drug users are otherwise fairly law-abiding, ‘sorting’ each other. Sep 10, · Essay on Critically Discuss What Howard Parker Et Al Critically discuss what Howard Parker et al () mean by the normalisation of recreational drug use. offering a critical analysis of the 'normalisation' thesis.
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