Study Design and Sampling Study Design Cross-sectional studies are simple in design and are aimed at finding out the prevalence of a phenomenon, problem, attitude or issue by taking a snap-shot or cross-section of the population. This obtains an overall picture as it stands at the time of the study.
For more information on this program, please visit the RSD Program web site: RSD uses evidence from early phases of data collection to make design decisions for later phases.
Beginning in the Summer Institute, we will offer a series of eleven one-day short courses in RSD techniques.
It is not necessary to be physically in Ann Arbor to participate in these workshops. Once enrollment is confirmed via email, indicate if course attendance will be in person, in Ann Arbor or via BlueJeans.
Survey Methodology for Randomized Controlled Trails does not have the remote participation option. These courses will include: Mick Couper Topics covered: Randomized Controlled Trials RCTs are an important tool for tests of internal validity of causal claims in both health and social sciences.
In practice, however, inattention to crucial details of data collection Sample techniques in research methodology can compromise the internal validity test. One crucial example is recruitment and retention of participants — though randomized to treatment, unequal reluctance to participate or unequal attrition from the RCT jeopardize the internal validity of comparisons within the RCT design.
Another crucial example is the interaction of treatment and measurement — if the measures themselves change in response to the RCT treatment, then observed treatment and control differences may reflect these measurement differences rather than treatment differences. In both cases, specific tools from survey methodology can be used to maximize the internal validity test in the RCT design.
This course will focus on the survey methodology topics most important for maintaining the internal validity of RCT studies and feature specific examples of applications to RCTs.
One set of tools will focus on maximizing participation and minimizing attrition of participants. Core survey methodology tools for encouraging participation in both pre-treatment measurement and the treatment itself as well as tools for minimizing the loss of participants to follow-up measures will be featured.
These tools include incentives, tailoring refusal conversion, switching modes, and tracking strategies. Links to RSD will also be made. A second set of tools will focus on measurement construction to reduce chances of interaction with treatment.
These tools include mode options, questionnaire design issues, and special instruments such as life history calendars to minimize reporting error. Each portion of the course will feature examples applying each specific tool to RCT studies.
This will include discussion of the uncertainty in survey design, the role of paradata, or data describing the data collection process, in informing decisions, and potential RSD interventions. These interventions include timing and sequence of modes, techniques for efficiently deploying incentives, and combining two-phase sampling with other design changes.
Interventions appropriate for face-to-face, telephone, web, mail and mixed-mode surveys will be discussed. Using the Total Survey Error TSE framework, the main concepts behind these designs will be explained with a focus on how these principles are designed to simultaneously control survey errors and survey costs.
Examples of RSD in both large and small studies will be provided as motivation. Small group exercises will help participants to think through some of the common questions that need to be answered when employing RSD.
The instructors will then provide independent examples of the implementation of RSD in different international surveys.
All case studies will be supplemented with discussions of issues regarding the development and implementation of RSD. This variety of case studies will reflect a diversity of survey conditions. The NSFG West is a cross-sectional survey that is run on a continuous basis with in-person interviewing.
The RDSL Axinn is a panel survey that employed a mixed-mode approach to collecting weekly journal data from a panel of young women. The UMCC survey is a web survey of students at UM that employed multiple modes of contact across the phases of the design. The Netherlands Survey of Consumer Satisfaction Schouten is a mixed-mode survey combining web and mail survey data collection with telephone interviewing.
The focus of the course will be on practical tools for implementing RSD in a variety of conditions, including small-scale surveys. William Axinn and Stephanie Coffey Topics covered: Web surveys can be an inexpensive method for collecting data.An overview of the research study with a detailed account of the research design explaining the data sources, methods used, research instrument of data collection, variables included, sample population and sample size is presented in this chapter.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.
Probability sampling is a technique wherein the samples are gathered in a process that gives all the individuals in the population equal chance of being selected. Many consider this to be the more methodologically rigorous approach to sampling because it eliminates social biases that could shape the research sample.
Research Methods are the tools used to explain social phenomena and often it is more possible to challenge conclusions if you are at least conversant with the variety of methodologies and tools applied.
ӹ Kothari CR, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY-METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, New Wiley Eastern ltd., Delhi, *** 3 UNIT – I Research Methods Versus Methodology: Research methods include all those techniques/methods that are and use very small samples and sharp data collection methods. The research may also be explanatory in nature.
BMC Medical Research Methodology does not aim to publish articles describing scientific methods or techniques: these should be directed to the BMC journal covering the relevant biomedical subject area.