The horticultural societies and their development in the history

Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection, plant, care, and removal of, individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.

The horticultural societies and their development in the history

List the major types of societies that have been distinguished according to their economy and technology. Explain why social development produced greater gender and wealth inequality. To help understand how modern society developed, sociologists find it useful to distinguish societies according to their type of economy and technology.

One of the most useful schemes distinguishes the following types of societies: Some scholars add a final type, postindustrial, to the end of this list.

We now outline the major features of each type in turn. Because all people in these societies have few possessions, the societies are fairly egalitarian, and the degree of inequality is very low.

Horticultural and pastoral Horticultural and pastoral societies are larger than hunting-and-gathering societies. Horticultural societies grow crops with simple tools, while pastoral societies raise livestock.

Both types of societies are wealthier than hunting-and-gathering societies, and they also have more inequality and greater conflict than hunting-and-gathering societies.

Agricultural These societies grow great numbers of crops, thanks to the use of plows, oxen, and other devices.

Unlike pastoral societies that rely on domesticating animals, horticultural societies rely on cultivating fruits, vegetables, and plants. These societies first appeared in different parts of the planet about the same time as pastoral societies. A horticultural society is one in which people subsist through the cultivation of plants for food consumption without the use of mechanized tools or the use of animals to pull plows. This makes horticultural societies distinct from agrarian societies, which do use these tools, and from pastoral. In early societies, people shared a common social standing. As societies evolved and became more complex, they began to elevate some members. Today, stratification, a system by which society ranks its members in a hierarchy, is the norm throughout the world. All societies stratify their members. A.

Compared to horticultural and pastoral societies, they are wealthier and have a higher degree of conflict and of inequality. Industrial Industrial societies feature factories and machines. They are wealthier than agricultural societies and have a greater sense of individualism and a somewhat lower degree of inequality that still remains substantial.

Postindustrial These societies feature information technology and service jobs. Higher education is especially important in these societies for economic success. Hunting-and-Gathering Societies Beginning aboutyears ago, hunting-and-gathering societies are the oldest ones we know of; few of them remain today, partly because modern societies have encroached on their existence.

As the name hunting-and-gathering implies, people in these societies both hunt for food and gather plants and other vegetation. They have few possessions other than some simple hunting-and-gathering equipment.

To ensure their mutual survival, everyone is expected to help find food and also to share the food they find. To seek their food, hunting-and-gathering peoples often move from place to place. Because they are nomadic, their societies tend to be quite small, often consisting of only a few dozen people.

Beyond this simple summary of the type of life these societies lead, anthropologists have also charted the nature of social relationships in them. One of their most important findings is that hunting-and-gathering societies are fairly egalitarian.

The horticultural societies and their development in the history

Although men do most of the hunting and women most of the gathering, perhaps reflecting the biological differences between the sexes discussed earlier, women and men in these societies are roughly equal. Because hunting-and-gathering societies have few possessions, their members are also fairly equal in terms of wealth and power, as virtually no wealth exists.

Horticultural and Pastoral Societies Horticultural and pastoral societies both developed about 10,—12, years ago. In horticultural societiespeople use hoes and other simple hand tools to raise crops.

In pastoral societiespeople raise and herd sheep, goats, camels, and other domesticated animals and use them as their major source of food and also, depending on the animal, as a means of transportation. Some societies are either primarily horticultural or pastoral, while other societies combine both forms.

The horticultural societies and their development in the history

Pastoral societies tend to be at least somewhat nomadic, as they often have to move to find better grazing land for their animals. Horticultural societies, on the other hand, tend to be less nomadic, as they are able to keep growing their crops in the same location for some time.

Both types of societies often manage to produce a surplus of food from vegetable or animal sources, respectively, and this surplus allows them to trade their extra food with other societies.

It also allows them to have a larger population size than hunting-and-gathering societies that often reaches several hundred members. Horticultural societies often produce an excess of food that allows them to trade with other societies and also to have more members than hunting-and-gathering societies.

Accompanying the greater complexity and wealth of horticultural and pastoral societies is greater inequality in terms of gender and wealth than is found in hunting-and-gathering societies.History Massachusetts Horticultural Society, founded in , is the oldest, formally organized horticultural institution in the United States.

Providing information on horticulture and related sciences, it has disseminated this information through its Library, educational programming, exhibitions and community outreach initiatives. UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY - The Development and History of Horticulture - Edwinna von Baeyer ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) THE DEVELOPMENT AND HISTORY OF HORTICULTURE Edwinna von Baeyer Sunnyside Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1S 0R2, Canada.

The Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry. [18] The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA) was established in and was the first organisation in the world dedicated solely to youth and horticulture.

The Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry. [18] The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA) was established in and was the first organisation in the world dedicated solely to youth and horticulture.

Soci – Human Societies Module 10 – Horticultural Societies François Nielsen University of North Carolina I 5 distinctive characteristics of horticultural societies, their interrelationships, and origin in horticultural major episode of intellectual history.

Reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). Horticultural Societies B. History Horticulture first developed in the Middle East beginning about 9, years ago and by about 5, years ago this technology had spread far eastward and to the Atlantic in the.

History | American Horticultural Society