How readily do teachers alter their forms of classroom organization; how readily do they modify approaches? Students with learning disabilities are among the mostvulnerable-at chronic risk for "not learning" under the aforementioned conditions, for long-term academic and social problems, and for lifelong debilitating side-effects of their classroom experiences.
This analysis asked, "Given a group of studies designed explicitly for the purpose of improving the writing of students with learning disabilities, which interventions and components were found to be most effective, and what is the strength of their effects?
Virtually all of the interventions studied were multifaceted. Three components stood out as ones that reliably and consistently led to improved outcomes in teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: Adhering to a basic framework of planning, writing, and revision Explicitly teaching critical steps in the writing process Providing feedback guided by the information explicitly taught Adhering to a basic framework of planning, writing, and revision Teaching students to write requires showing them how to develop and organize what writing activities for learning disabled students want to say and guiding them in the process of getting it down on paper.
Most of the interventions used a basic framework based on planning, writing, and revising. These steps are part of a recursive, rather than linear, process, i.
In these studies, each step was taught explicitly, with several examples and often supported by a "think sheet," a prompt card, or a mnemonic. Well-developed plans for writing result in better first drafts. Teachers or peers who write well can verbalize the process they go through to help students develop their own "plans of action.
It specifies a topic and asks the questions, "Who am I writing for? Another technique is to use semantic mapping to help students plan their writing.
Creating a first draft. Using a plan of action helps students create first drafts. The plan serves as a concrete map for engaging in the writing process and provides students with suggestions for what to do when they feel "stuck.
A well-developed plan of action also gives the student and teacher a common language to use in discussing the writing. The dialogue between teacher and student represents a major advance in writing instruction over traditional methods that required students to work in relative isolation.
Revising and editing skills are critical to the writing process. Developing methods to help students refine and edit their work has been difficult, but a few researchers have begun to develop specific strategies that appear promising.
For example, Wong, Butler, Ficzere, and Kuperisin teaching students to write opinion essays, used peer editing as an instructional strategy for the students. Pairs of students alternated their roles as student-writer and student-critic.
The student-critic identified ambiguities in the essay and asked the writer for clarification.
With help from the teacher, the students made revisions. The teacher also provided the student-writer with feedback on clarity and on the cogency of the supportive arguments. Through this process, the student-writer had to explain his or her communicative intent to the peer and revise the essay to faithfully reflect it.
In this way the trainees developed a sense of audience for their writing.
Explicitly teaching critical steps in the writing process Explicitly teaching text structures provides a guide for the writing task, whether it is a persuasive essay, a personal narrative, or an essay comparing and contrasting two phenomena.
Different types of writing are based on different structures. For example, a persuasive essay contains a thesis and supporting arguments, while narrative writing may contain character development and a story climax. Instruction in text structures typically includes numerous explicit models and prompts.
Again, a plan of action is helpful. The plan makes text structures more visible to students and helps to demystify the writing process. Providing feedback guided by the information explicitly taught A third component common to these successful interventions was frequent feedback to students on the overall quality of writing, missing elements, and strengths.
When feedback is combined with instruction in the writing process, the dialogue between student and teacher is strengthened.
Giving and receiving feedback also helps students to develop "reader sensitivity" and their own writing style. Across the studies of successful writing instruction, teachers and students had an organizational framework and language to use in providing feedback on such aspects of writing as organization, originality, and interpretation.
Wong and her colleagues modeled procedures, for students and teachers, providing feedback so that they would attend to the surface features of writing e. Specific methods Numerous methods for teaching written expression incorporate these three common principles.
The SRSD technique involves self-directed prompts that require the students to a consider their audience and reasons for writing, b develop a plan for what they intend to say using frames to generate or organize writing notes; c evaluate possible content by considering its impact on the reader; and d continue the process of content generation and planning during the act of writing.
Cognitive Strategy Instruction in Writing includes brainstorming strategies for preparing to write, organizing strategies to relate and categorize the ideas, comprehension strategies as students read and gather information for their writing, and monitoring strategies as they clarify their thoughts and the relationships among their items of information.
All of these strategies are applied prior to the actual writing.
Emerging issues in writing instruction for students with learning disabilities Gersten and Baker identify some issues in which research is expected to blossom in coming years.Second, because many students with learning disabilities will continue to have problems with spelling even after learning to read fluently, it is especially important for such students to learn strategies for proofreading their writing.
Good writing requires juggling a lot of skills. Students must concurrently generate ideas, plan and organize material, be creative as well as analytical, follow the rules of grammar and spell words correctly.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle with these competing demands and. Prevention and Intervention of Writing Difficulties for Students with Learning Disabilities Integration of writing activities across the curriculum and the use of reading to support writing development.
C., & Gregg, S. (). An analysis of errors and strategies in the expository writing of learning disabled students. Remedial and. This helps students with learning disabilities because it can be used as an assistive technology (AT) to meet the literacy needs of students who have learning disabilities in terms of both reading and writing.
The smartpen provides a method of accommodation and instructional support for students with learning disabilities in three areas: study skills, independent work, and assessment (Patti and Garland ). The goals of good writing instruction for students with disabilities are the same as those for all students.
All students need to develop their knowledge about the purposes and forms of writing, basic writing skills, strategies for .
Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Strategies. Engage students in activities that help them learn to recognize letters visually.
For students who have reading difficulties, have a proctor read the test to the student. For students with writing difficulties, have someone scribe the answers for them or use a tape recorder.